室温太低降低女性工作效率 太高则降低男性工作效率

室温太低降低女性工作效率 太高则降低男性工作效率

Icy Room Temperatures May Chill Productivity

房间温度太低会降低女性工作效率

A few years ago, scientists determined that our thermostats are sexist. Namely, that office climates had been optimized for a hypothetical roomful of 40-year-old, 150-pound men, using standards developed more than 50 years ago. And that ends up leaving a lot of women in the cold.

几年前,科学家断定我们的恒温控制器存在性别歧视。换句话说,该办公室采用得是50多年前的标准——假设房间里全是40多岁、150多磅重的男性而调节的室温。而50年前的这一标准最终却导致很多女性在办公室受到“冷遇”。

It's called the battle of the thermostat. Tom Chang, a behavioral economist at the USC Marshall School of Business. He says it goes beyond comfort for women: "It seems that it's not just a matter of comfort but it also affects their productivity."

“这被称为恒温器之战。”南加州大学马歇尔商学院的行为经济学家汤姆·张(音译)表示到。他称,这一温度标准不仅仅会让女性不舒服:“似乎这一不仅有关舒适,而且还会影响她们的工作效率”。

Chang and his colleague tested that link between temperature and performance by quizzing 543 German students on basic addition skills and word scrambles, in rooms that varied from 60 to 90 degrees Fahrenheit.

张和他的同事在60到90华氏度(15.6摄氏度-32.2摄氏度)的房间里对543名德国学生进行了基本加法技能和单词干扰测试,以此来测试室温和表现之间的关系。

And if you went from the low 60s to the mid 70s, you saw an increase in female performance of almost 15 percent. Which I found remarkably large. Much larger than I'd expected. The effects tapered off after the mid 70s. But men, on the other hand, had a small decrease in performance—about three percent—as temperatures rose to the mid 70s. The results are in the journal PLOS ONE.

“如果你从60华氏度低温的房间去到70多华氏度房间,你会发现女性的效率提高了近15%。我发现效率提高了非常多,比我想象得大得多。”这种影响在在70多华氏度往上逐渐减弱。但另一方面,当室温升到70多华氏度之后,男性得表现却略有下降,下降了大约3%。研究结果发表在《公共科学图书馆·综合》杂志上。

And there's a chance these findings might explain disparities in test scores on the SAT. "The longstanding gap in performance between high school boys and high school girls on the SATs is approximately 4 percent. Given the effect size we're finding, three degrees difference in indoor temperature would close that gap entirely." Still, he says, "I wouldn't go running off writing policy off of one study."

这些发现或许可以解释SAT考试分数的差异。“长期以来,高中男生和高中女生在SAT考试中得成绩相差约为4%。考虑到我们所发现得效应值,室内温度3度之差将完全消除这一差距。”尽管如此,他说:“我不会因为一项研究撰写(考试)政策。”

But it seems Cynthia Nixon had the thermostat dialed in just right last year. The actor turned politician was preparing to debate Andrew Cuomo as they vied for the Democratic nomination for New York State’s governor. Debate venues are usually kept pretty chilly. But she requested a more balmy—and perhaps cognitively friendly—76 degrees.

但似乎辛西娅·尼克松(Cynthia Nixon)去年把恒温器拨对了。这位演员出身的政治家准备与安德鲁·科莫(Andrew Cuomo)辩论,两人争夺纽约州州长民主党提名。辩论场所通常温度相当低。但她要求的是一个更舒适的——或许是认知上更舒服的温度——76度。

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