幸福是遗传的吗?| BBC六分钟

幸福是遗传的吗?| BBC六分钟

在今天的6分钟英语里,Neil和Dan将会讨论为什么北欧国家的人普遍看起来比其他国家的人要幸福,秘诀是否与他们的DNA有关。同时,我们还一起学习相关的新词汇。
本周问题:
在2017年世界幸福指数报告中,英国位列第几名?
a)10前十名
b)11名到20名之间
c)21名之后
让我们一起听录音,找出正确答案吧。
听力正文:
Dan: Hello and welcome to 6 Minute English–the show that brings you an interesting topic, authentic listening practice and six new items of vocabulary. I'm Dan…
大家好,欢迎收听六分钟英语频道。这个节目将给你带来一个有趣的话题,以及纯正的听力练习和六个新词汇。我是丹。
Neil: And I'm Neil. In this episode we'll be discussing if happiness is genetic.
我是尼尔。在本节中,我们将讨论幸福是否具有遗传性。
Dan: How happy would you say you are Neil? 
尼尔,你觉得自己有多幸福?
Neil : I'm pretty happy I think. Why do you ask?
我想我现在相当幸福。为什么这么问?
Dan: Well, in March this year the UN published its fifth world happiness report.
你知道,今年3月,联合国发布了第五份《世界幸福报告》。
Neil: Is that the one that ranks all of the countries based on how happy they are?
就是那个根据所有国家的幸福程度来给他们排名的吗?
Dan: You've heard of it then. Over all there are 155 countries included, and Norway came top of them all, overtaking Denmark, which was the leader for the years 2012 to 2016.
你一定有听说过。一共有155个国家,其中挪威排在首位,超过了2012年至2016年排名第一的丹麦。
Neil: Well what about the UK?
那么英国呢?
Dan: Ah, well that' this week’s questions, isn't it? Where did the UK place?
a) in the top 10
b) between 11th and 20th
c) after 21st
这就是本周的问题,英国排在第几?
a)前10名
b) 在11名到20名之间
c)在21名之后
Neil: Well, I'm going to say c) after 21st.
我选c),在 21名之后。
Dan: Ok, you know the drill. No answers until the end of the show.
好的,我明白了,你知道规矩的。到节目结束才会公布答案。
Neil: So, Norway, eh? And Denmark the previous year? They'e neighbours!
所以,现在第一名是挪威,对吗?而前一年则是丹麦?它俩是邻居!
Dan: Yes. In fact, for the last 5 years, the results have been pretty much the same. Nordic countries tend to dominate the top of the table.
是的。事实上,在过去的5年里,结果几乎都是一样的。北欧五国往往占据主导地位
Neil: Dominate meaning 'control'. Ok, well how are the results decided?
主导意味着是“控制”。那么结果是怎么决定的呢?
Dan: It's very simple. They ask 1000 people in each country a single subjective question.
这很简单。他们向每个国家的1000人提出一个主观问题。
Neil: Subjective means 'based on personal experience, beliefs or feelings'. …Well, what’ s the question?
主观的意思是“基于个人经验、信仰或感觉的”。那么,问题是什么?
Dan: Imagine a ladder, with steps numbered from 0 at the bottom to 10 at the top. The top of the ladder represents the best possible life for you and the bottom of the ladder represents the worst possible life for you. On which step of the ladder would you say you personally feel you stand at this time?
你可以想象一个梯子,梯级从底部的0到顶部的10。梯子顶部代表着你可能拥有的最好的生活,而梯子的底部则代表着你可能拥有的最坏的生活。你个人认为此时此刻你站在梯子的哪一端?
Neil: That'actually quite simple.
这其实很简单。
Dan: Yep. The Nordic countries all score an average close to 7.5 out of 10.
丹: 是的。北欧五国的平均得分10分里面都接近7.5分。
Neil: So we have a number of neighbouring countries which all claim to be extremely happy. There must be a connection….is it the weather?
因此,我们有一些邻国都自称非常幸福。这其中一定有相关联系……是因为天气的缘故吗?
Dan: Well, that' a logical conclusion, but there is another idea. I'll let Professor Andrew Oswald from the University of Warwick explain.
嗯,这是一个合乎逻辑的结论,不过还有另一种解读方式。接下来我将让华威大学的安德鲁·奥斯瓦德教授来解释。
Professor Andrew Oswald, University of Warwick
华威大学的安德鲁·奥斯瓦德教授:
We think that there is a genetic component, in part, to why the Danes do so well coming so regularly at the head of happiness international league tables. 
It does appear from the data that the Danes have the smallest amount of the, you might say, dangerous, short kind of genetic pattern. So they may have a kind of inoculation against the possibility of depression.
我们认为,丹麦人在国际幸福排行榜上之所以排名如此靠前,部分原因是在于他们的基因构成。
从数据上来看,丹麦人较少拥有不良又少种的基因。因此这也就成为他们应对抑郁症的(天然)“疫苗”。
Neil: So, professor Oswald mentioned there is a genetic component, or part, to Danish DNA which gives them an inoculation, or illness protection, against depression and sadness.
奥斯瓦尔德教授提到,丹麦人的DNA中存有遗传成分,或部分遗传成分,为他们提供了预防抑郁和悲伤的(天然)疫苗,或疾病保护。
补充:特殊的基因带给丹麦人们幸福感的增加和乐观主义,这种基因会对大脑分泌血清素神经递质产生影响。将丹麦人与其他民族比较,会发现,他们的这种基因更长。“快乐基因”越短,人就越不快乐。
Dan: Yep. All of the Nordic countries have a similar make-up.
是的。所有的北欧国家都有类似的基因构成。
Neil: But he said‘in part’. That means it doesn't explain everything. So, there' something missing.
但他说“部分地”。这意味着它不能解释一切。也就是说,有些事情被遗漏了
Dan: There' no fooling you! Michael Booth has written a book about Nordic happiness. He has another theory.
你可真是敏锐! 为此,迈克尔·布斯写了一本关于北欧幸福的书。对于这件事情,他持有不同看法。
Michael Booth, Author
作家迈克尔•布斯:
There are so many reasons why the Danes are happy, why they're content that have nothing to do with DNA. Of course they’re happy! They're rich! They're sexy! They're funny! They don't work that much!
可以让丹麦人快乐的原因有很多,但为什么他们却总是满足于与自身基因无关的因素。毫无疑问,他们当然幸福! 因为他们不仅富有,性感迷人,而且又足够有趣! 并且工作还没那么多!
Neil: Ah. So being rich, funny, sexy and not working much is why they are content, meaning 'satisfied'. That sounds a bit like you, Dan.
也就是说,富有、有趣、性感迷人,工作不多是他们满足的原因,content意思是“满足”。听起来跟你很像,丹。
Dan: I can't publicly comment on that Neil, I'm sorry! But there is one more piece we're missing. Hygge. It's a loanword and only just appeared in the British dictionaries. We don't have a direct translation, but it basically means cosiness.
我不能公开评论这件事,尼尔,我很抱歉!但我们还少了一块。Hygge。这是一个外来词,刚刚出现在英国的字典里。我们没有直接的翻译,但它基本上意味着舒适。
Neil: Cosiness, meaning 'warm, comfortable and safe'.
Cosiness意为“温暖、舒适和安全”。
Dan: Yes. Danes love simple comforts. A warm cosy room, some drinks, some candles and a fire, and they are happy. Maybe that's the secret.
是的。丹麦人喜欢简单的舒适。一个温暖舒适的房间,一些饮料,一些蜡烛和火,他们就能很高兴。也许这就是其中的奥秘。
Neil: Well, the secret to my happiness right now is finding out if I was right in the quiz.
好吧,我现在能够让我幸福的奥秘就是看看我在测验中是否答对问题。
Dan: Oh yes! I asked: Where did the UK place in the World Happiness Report 2017.
是的!我的问题是:英国在《2017年世界幸福报告》中排名如何。
a) in the top 10
b) between 11th and 20th
c) after 21st
a)前10名
b) 11号到20号之间
c)后21
Neil: I said c) after 21st.
我选的是c) 21号之后。
Dan: And I'm afraid you're wrong my friend. We placed b) between 11th and 20th. We were actually 19th.
很遗憾你选错了,我的朋友。我们把b放在第11位和第20位之间。我们实际上排在第19位。
Neil: Well, let's make our listeners happy by going through the vocabulary.
好吧,让我们通过回顾词汇来让我们的听众幸福起来吧。
Dan: Ok. irst we had dominate. If you dominate something or someone, you control it. It's quite an aggressive word. You wouldn’t use it for people much. But, give us an example, Neil.
好的。首先是dominate这个单词。如果你支配某物或某人,也就意味着你控制了它。是一个相当具有攻击性的词。你不会经常在别人身上使用它。不过,就以此给我们举个例子吧,尼尔。
Neil: You can talk about a team dominating play in a sport. Next we had subjective. If something is subjective it is based on personal experience, beliefs or feelings rather than facts, which are objective. What type of things are subjective, Dan?
你可以谈论一个球队在一项运动中的主导地位。下一个单词是subjective,主观的。如果某物是主观的,它是基于个人经验、信仰或感觉,而不是客观的事实。什么东西是主观的,丹?
Dan: Oh, it's our opinions of art, music, jokes, food. You know, I like sausages and ice-cream but no one else does!
主观就是我们对艺术、音乐、笑话和食物的看法。你知道,我喜欢香肠和冰淇淋,但是没有人喜欢!
Neil: That's because it's disgusting!
那是因为它很恶心!
Dan: Then we had component. A component is part of something that makes up a larger whole. Televisions and computers have many components in them.
然后就是component(组成部分,成分)这个单词。一个组成部分是组成一个更大的整体的一部分。比如电视和电脑就有很多部件。
Neil: And a person can be an essential component in a team, like a goal-keeper in football. After that was inoculation. An inoculation is a form of disease protection. It is a synonym of….Dan?
一个人可以是一个团队的重要组成部分,就像足球中的守门员。之后是单词inoculation(接种)。接种是预防疾病的一种形式。它是什么的同义词...丹?
Dan: Vaccination. I went on holiday last year and had to have my inoculations updated. Then we had content.If you are content, you are satisfied and want nothing. What makes you content, Neil?
它的同义词是Vaccination.。去年我去度假之后重新接种了疫苗。然后我们来看content这个单词,content意为满足。一旦你觉得满足了之后就不会再想要其他东西了。尼尔,什么东西可以让你感到满足?
Neil: A warm sunny day in my garden with a good book. And finally we had cosiness. Cosiness comes from cosy, which means 'warm, comfortable and safe'. Where's cosy for you Dan?
一个温暖的阳光明媚的日子,在我的花园里捧着一本好书。最后一个单词是cosiness(舒适)舒适。Cosines源自cozy,意思是“温暖、舒适和安全”。在哪里会让你感觉舒适自在呢,丹?
Dan: Oh easy. On a freezing cold day, it's tucked up in bed with a nice cup of tea. And that's the end of today's 6 Minute English. Please join us again soon!
这很简单。在一个寒冷的日子里,蜷缩在床上,喝着一杯好茶。以上就是今天六分钟英语的全部内容。快加入我们吧!
Neil: And we are on social media too, of course - Facebook, Twitter, Instagram and YouTube. See you there.
当然,我们也有在使用社交媒体包括脸书、推特、Ins平台和YouTube。到时候在那里见。
Both: Bye!
再见!