传染病能根除吗?盘点在对抗传染病方面取得的胜利 | BBC News

传染病能根除吗?盘点在对抗传染病方面取得的胜利 | BBC News

Humanity has only ever eradicated one human disease - smallpox.
人们只曾经根除过一种人类疾病——天花。
But we are winning the battle against others.
但是我们在对抗其它疾病方面取得了胜利。
In the 80s polio paralyzed 1,000 children globally every 24 hours.
在80年代,脊髓灰质炎每天会造成1000个孩子瘫痪。
Today has been reduced by 99% and is found only in three countries.
现在已经降低了99%,只在三个国家中存在。
The success of vaccines and health campaigns show that infectious diseases can be defeated.
成功研制出疫苗以及卫生运动表明传染病是能被打败的。
Guinea worm disease, a parasitic infection from round worm is said to be the second disease to be eradicated.
麦地那龙线虫病,一种由蛔虫导致的寄生虫感染,据说将是被根除的第二种疾病。
There are still some big killers.
然而仍有许多重大致死疾病。
The world needs to do more.
全人类需要做出更多努力。
One problem is malaria.
一大问题就是疟疾。
100 years ago malaria existed nearly everywhere in the world and killed 2 million people a year throughout the first half of the century.
100年前,疟疾几乎存在于世界各处,在该世纪前半叶每年造成200万人死亡。
It was endemic in the United States and Britain until the early 1950s.
直到20世纪50年代早期它都是美国和英国的地方性流行病。
Through a global initiative much of the rich world wiped it out by 1990.
通过全球计划,到1990年许多发达国家消除该疾病。
But it still kills around half a million people a year mostly young children.
但是它仍每年杀死大约50万人,大多数是孩子。
Over 90% of these deaths are in Sub-Saharan Africa.
其中超过90%的死亡人口在撒哈拉以南的非洲。
Mosquitoes are also becoming increasingly resistant to drugs and insecticides.
蚊子同样对药物和杀虫剂变得更有抗药性。
Another big problem is AIDS.
另一个大麻烦是艾滋病。
At its peak it killed 1.9 million people annually.
在高峰时期,它每年杀死190万人。
Today that figure has halved.
现在那个数字已经减半。
HIV diagnosis is no longer a death sentence in the rich world.
在一些发达国家诊断出艾滋病不再是给人们判了死刑。
The life expectancy for someone who is diagnosed early and begins antiretroviral treatment has risen to 71 years.
早期确诊并开始抗逆转录病毒治疗的人的平均寿命已经增长到71岁。
However there are still nearly 40 million people living with the disease.
然而仍有近4000万人身患重病。
And around half of these are in eastern and southern Africa.
其中大约有一半在非洲东部及南部。
The danger with both these diseases is complacency.
人们对于这些疾病带来的威胁掉以轻心了。
As they become more manageable fewer resources are spent on trying to eradicate them.
随着它们变得更易控制,为根除它们而花费的资源在减少。
That could lead to a resurgence of these diseases in poorer countries and a rise in death rates.
那会导致在较贫困国家这些疾病死灰复燃以及死亡率上升。
If the world really does want to eliminate malaria and AIDS, governments need to commit more money instead of limiting it as progress is made.
如果人类确实真的想要消除疟疾和艾滋病,政府应该投入更多资金而不是在取得进步的同时加以限制。