表示流行病的pandemic和epidemic有什么区别?

表示流行病的pandemic和epidemic有什么区别?

近来,世界各国新冠肺炎确诊病例都在显著增加

epidemicpandemic这两个词频频在外媒报道中出现。

那么到底应该用epidemic,还是pandemic呢?

尽管这两个词很相近,但二者指的不是同一种东西。

感染控制和流行病学专业人员协会在网站上解释道:

an epidemic occurs when an infectious disease spreads rapidly to many people.”

当一种传染性疾病迅速传播给许多人时,就被称为epidemic。

Usually, what precedes an epidemic is an outbreak, or “a sudden rise in the number of cases of a disease.”

An outbreak can affect a single community or several countries, but it’s on a much smaller scale than an epidemic.

通常,epidemic发生之前会有outbreak(疾病爆发)

即“a sudden rise in the number of cases of a disease”(某种疾病案例的突然增加)。

outbreak可能影响到单个社区或几个国家,但规模比epidemic小得多。

在《柯林斯英语词典》里,outbreak的意思是:

If there is an outbreak of something unpleasant, such as violence or a disease, it suddenly starts to happen.

例句:

The four-day festival ended a day early after an outbreak of violence involving hundreds of youths.

一场有数百名年轻人卷入的暴力活动发生后,为期4天的节庆活动被迫提前一天结束。

epidemic的意思是:

If there is an epidemic of a particular disease somewhere, it affects a very large number of people there and spreads quickly to other areas.

例句:

A flu epidemic is sweeping through Moscow.

一场流感正席卷莫斯科。

如果一场epidemic得不到控制,并让它不断蔓延开来,公共卫生官员可能就要开始称之为pandemic

意思是 it’s affected enough people in different areas of the world to be considered a global outbreak

(这场流行病已经影响到世界不同地区足够多的人,到了全球性暴发的程度)。

简而言之,pandemic就是全球性的流行病。pandemic感染的人更多,导致的死亡人数更多,还可能对社会和经济造成广泛的影响。

1918年到1919年的西班牙流感在全世界导致2000万至4000万人丧生,这种流行病属于pandemic;离现在更近的2009年的甲型流感也是pandemic。

在《柯林斯英语词典》里,pandemic的意思是:

A pandemic is an occurrence of a disease that affects many people over a very wide area.

例句:

They feared a new cholera pandemic.

他们担心新一轮的霍乱大流行。

但是,微妙之处在于,outbreak、epidemic和pandemic三者之间没有既成的区分体系。

2月24日,世界卫生组织(WHO)曾警告称,本次新冠肺炎疫情不能用pandemic来形容。

美国国家过敏和传染病研究所的所长安东尼·福奇(Anthony Fauci)曾表示:

It really is borderline semantics, to be honest with you. I think you could have people arguing each end of it.

Pandemics mean different things to different people.

老实说,这确实是边界语义学。我想你会听到人们各执一词。

不同的人对pandemic有不同的理解。